«Газпром» против «Нафтогаза»: контракты расторгают, Украина в патовой ситуации

«Газпром» против «Нафтогаза»: контракты расторгают, Украина в патовой ситуации

В стране закрывают школы и вузы

«Газпром» против «Нафтогаза»: контракты расторгают, Украина в патовой ситуации

«Экономия газа? — спрашивает меня хозяйка небольшого кафе в Мариуполе. — А разве она у нас не идет который год? Газ в конфорке — он же голубым должен гореть, а он у нас красным горит уже больше года, и если одна конфорка работает, вторую зажечь — проблема!

Разбавляют газ давно, качество его у потребителя на кухне давно так себе. А в остальном как топили, так и топят, как платили, так и платим — у меня двухкомнатная квартира, 1300 гривен (около 2736 рублей) за отопление отдаем, у сестры 1200 (около 2525 рублей), мама как-то умудряется на 900 держаться (около 1894 рублей)».

Постановление «Нафтогаза» о срочной экономии газа украинские потребители не поняли и не почувствовали. Например, вузы в крупнейших городах зимой и так работали с продленными каникулами, а потом до 1 марта с «дистанционным внеаудиторным обучением». Причем студентам рассказали об этом еще в сентябре. Руководство вузов прямо говорило, что у них нет денег на оплату отопления.

Что касается школ, то в Киеве их закрыли на 2 и 3 марта «из-за непогоды». А незадолго до этого Киев, Харьков и Запорожье на неделе закрывали от грузовиков — метели, аномальные объемы снега и семнадцатиградусный мороз блокировали дороги. Трасса из Донецка в Мариуполь кое-где пробита в одну колею, на Запорожье не успевали расчистить и призывали водителей не выезжать на «закрытую» дорогу.

Из-за снегопада во многих городах и селах отключились электричество и интернет. Можно сказать, что чрезвычайные меры по поводу «газовой войны» — естественное продолжение мер по борьбе с аномальной зимой. Коммунальные службы не справляются со своими обязанностями, и к этому все привыкли. Никто не делает из этого сенсацию.

Между тем с конца осени 2015 года Киев заявил, что полностью отказался от потребления российского газа. На практике это означало, что он будет закупать его же, но по более высокой цене у европейских партнеров. Достигнутая таким образом энергонезависимость Украины на протяжении почти трех лет была гордостью президента Украины Петра Порошенко.

Однако 28 февраля 2018 года Стокгольмский арбитраж обязал «Газпром» выплатить «Нафтогазу» 4,6 миллиарда долларов за недостаточный транзит в период с 2009 по 2017 годы. Российская компания с таким решением не согласилась и заявила, что будет защищать свои права всеми законными способами. На следующий день «Газпром» отказался поставлять Украине предоплаченный ею газ за март и вернул деньги. Поводом для этого стало то, что Киев не успел заключить с компанией необходимые соглашения.

Читайте материал: «Пострадает пол-Европы: кто виноват в газовом конфликте России и Украины»

«Газовый кризис на Украине начался не из-за «Газпрома», а из-за того, что республика потеряла значительную часть своих промышленных мощностей, расположенных в Крыму и на Донбассе, — объясняет «МК» член Наблюдательного совета украинского Института энергетических стратегий Юрий Корольчук. — Эти регионы были мощными потребителями газа, благодаря чему в трубах сохранялось высокое давление.

До 2014 года Украина потребляла около 50 миллиардов кубометров газа в год, теперь ей достаточно чуть больше половины этого объема. В результате в наших газохранилищах на начало марта осталось почти 10 миллиардов кубометров газа, хотя обычно к этому моменту было лишь 6–8 миллиардов».

По словам эксперта, из-за падения давления в своем трубопроводе Украина теряет способность поставлять газ в Европу. «Нафтогаз» это понимал, поэтому стремился как можно скорее закупить у «Газпрома» еще «голубого топлива», чтобы повысить давление и выполнить свои обязательства перед Западом.

«Схема должна была сработать, если бы Киев не решил при этом потребовать от Москвы 4 миллиарда долларов. О чем украинские власти в этот момент думали, неизвестно. Теперь «Газпром» разрывает контракт и будет выставлять Киеву новые условия, от которых он уже не сможет отказаться, чтобы не подставлять своих западных партнеров», — утверждает Корольчук.

«Чтобы избежать этой ситуации, Киев должен был перестроить всю свою газовую систему под новые условия. В частности, нужно проложить новый трубопровод на юг и север страны, — рассказывает «МК» эксперт по энергетике. — Но пока об этом никто даже не задумывается. Вместо этого украинские власти сокращают подачу газа своим согражданам, чтобы таким образом компенсировать нехватку давления в трубах».

Получайте короткую вечернюю рассылку лучшего в «МК» — подпишитесь на наш Telegram.

Источник: mk.ru

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